Solar elements based on organic and organo-inorganic materials

  • V. V. Lobanov O.O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  • M. I. Terebinskaya O.O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  • O. V. Filonenko O.O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
  • O. I. Tkachuk O.O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Keywords: solar cells, solar photovoltaics, Shockley-Quayssera limit, flexoelectric effect, flexo-photovoltaic effect, current carriers, singlet fission, conductive polymers, excitons, donor materials, acceptor materials, organic metals, oxidation state, conduction mechanism, polarons, bipolarons, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, solar radiation simulator, polystyrene-sulfonic acid, intermolecular complex PEDOT: PSS

Abstract

The depletion of both available and explored reserves of mineral and organic fuel stimulates the development of solar energy (solar photovoltaics, SF), non-associated with environmental pollution and the violation of the thermal balance of the planet. The development of SF went and goes in the direction of increasing the efficiency of solar cells (SE), subject to the requirements of reducing their cost, increasing the service life and stability under changing environmental conditions, namely humidity, cloud cover, temperature drops, pressure, etc.

The review presents a classification of solar cells by generation of appearance, principle of operation and other indicators, in particular, the intensity of the collection of light, the composition of the absorbing material, its thickness, etc. Specific options are given for solar cells of various types. Due attention is paid to ways to overcome the fundamental Shockley-Quisser limit, namely, flexoelectric, flexo-photovoltaic effects, as well as the process of singlet fission - the most promising method for increasing the efficiency of solar cells.

The main special parameters and characteristics of solar cells, experimental methods for their determination, and the calibration of artificial simulators of solar radiation are considered.

Much attention in the review is paid to the use of conductive polymers and organo-inorganic materials in SFs, their classification is given with emphasis on advantages and disadvantages compared to silicon SCs. A brief excursion into the history of the appearance and development of conductive polymers (organic metals) was carried out with coverage of methods for their reduction or oxidation to increase electrical conductivity.

The properties of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) are described in detail in both isolated state and combination with polystyrenesulfonic acid (PSS). The micro- and macroscopic properties of the intermolecular complex PEDOT: PSS, the most studied conductive polymer that plays an important role in SF, are described, determined from quantum-mechanical calculations.

            The properties of organo-inorganic materials are sufficiently thoroughly analyzed, which, according to well-founded forecasts, will soon achieve economic indicators of the efficiency of solar cells inherent in the first generation. The scheme of photogeneration of charge carriers from donor and acceptor materials has been refined. The main properties are presented of solar cells based on perovskite, sensitized with dyes, and methods for their modification aimed at increasing the efficiency of solar cells.

The review concludes with a brief discussion on the mechanism of conductivity in organic metals with emphasis on the relationship between the degree of their oxidation and the formation of polarons and bipolarons in the polymer conjugation chain.

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Published
2019-10-30
How to Cite
Lobanov, V. V., Terebinskaya, M. I., Filonenko, O. V., & Tkachuk, O. I. (2019). Solar elements based on organic and organo-inorganic materials. Surface, (11(26), 270-343. https://doi.org/10.15407/Surface.2019.11.270
Section
Theory of surface chemical structure and reactivity.