Effect of zirconium doping on the properties of defect titanium dioxide films: quantum chemical calculations
The spatial and electronic structures of cluster (Ti13ZrH22O39, Ti13ZrN2H22O37, Ti13ZrN2H22O36 ) which model pure titanium dioxide (anatase modification) and that with zirconium impurities as well as pure zirconium composition (ZrO2 content), are considered. The theoretically calculated infrared, electron and X-ray spectra of these clusters are analyzed. The spectra of small particles of zirconium are shown to be highly characteristic of the spectral transition energies and uniquely correspond to their spatial structures. It is shown that in the photoelectron spectra the energy level of Zr 3p is characteristic and its intensity in the RF spectra and position on the energy scale is slightly dependent on the chemical environment of the zirconium atom. The calculated oscillation frequency in the IR spectra of the considered clusters was determined to be “breathing” vibrations of Zr – O bonds (538 cm– 1) and stretching vibrations of Zr = O bonds (955 cm– 1). It is determined that the search for an approximate solution by imposing symmetry on a real object is appropriate, because the symmetry of the cluster corresponds to the real symmetry of the crystal. The results of the studies are compared with the properties of molecular models for the bulk and surface phases of titanium dioxide, calculated by the method of electron density functional theory (DFT). It is found that the results of spectral studies of the properties of samples of titanium dioxide can clearly indicate the presence of zirconium impurities in them, or their absence.
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